System design Algorithm: In Brief
FPGA Implementation for Real time speech
In this research, a secured real-time voice communication scheme is proposed and implemented it using FPGA and analyzed for several cases. Security analysis experimental results show that this cryptosystem will be very practical. The proposed scheme has multi levels of security because encryption is performed using random number and the random bits are not easily guessable as they are not predictable. Compression makes space in the frame and facilitates the need of extra space for watermark and random numbers. Again watermark signal provides with necessary information and are hidden in the speech signal. They can be further used for authentication, user verification, copyright information and source tracing. The scheme saves the need for extra space. It is also good for high QoS (Quality of Service) data transmission as there is minimal latency from originating signal to the reconstructed signal. The proposed scheme is tested for speech signal with noise found that it is suitable for a noisy environment. The proposed encryption-decryption system is not suitable for data facing bit error. Rather it is suitable for internet data transferring, where any lose of data is identified and corrected. That means this method is useable for those data transmission where bit error does not occurs (have very low probability of error) or bit error is identified and eliminated by inspection, such as check-sum method. It is also suitable for uploading and downloading voice-data. In real-time application frame should be dropped when an error occurs.
MPEG-4 is the most popular loss-less compression system. The exact formula used in MPEG-4 ALS to predict yi from the previous samples yi-k. A number of predictions are performed at the same time. One prediction is selected using multiplexer. The prediction possesses minimum error is selected. Which prediction is selected is also transmitted after entropy coding. As one prediction is selected for error minimization error is normally small and common. These errors are entropy coded. Performing these operations about 54% compression ratio is found on average. Compression ratio of proposed system is .74 when it is working alone. Cascading two system compression ratios will be .4018. Performance of lossy compression systems is much better than loss-less systems. Their percentage of compression, cost of compression, time needed for compression all are much better than loss-less compressions. Loss-less compression algorithms are Adaptive Arithmetic Compress, Adaptive Huff- man Compress, LZAH Compress, LZWAH Compress etc. In all of these algorithms compression ratio depends on input signal, like proposed algorithm. These are completely loss- less but always cannot compress data. For signal of smaller frame size of data after applying this operation is higher than original data. MPEG-4 ALS is a recent loss-less-only audio compression standard, providing loss-less compression for PCM multichannel audio signals, with an introductory description available in. Among all recent algorithms MPEG-4 ALS 19, optimum compression is the best.
Static RAM Design using Equalizer and Sense Circuit
System shows the arrangement of proposed SRAM cell. Normally Bit and Bit are precharged using PMOS and precharged to VDD. PMOS passer good 1 but poor 0 and for this it is used for percharging to high voltage. In proposed system a PMOS equalizer is used because voltages of bitlines after precharging is higher than VDD/2. The system contains one bit memory cell for explaining operation. After completing one read or write (R/W) operation sense is low and bit-lines contains previous value. Then both bit-lines are precharged using Equalizer (EQ). One PMOS pass transistor is used as Equalizer. When precharge is high bit-lines are precharged to about VDD/2. As threshold voltage of PMOS is lower than VDD/2 both PMOS will be ON and voltage of both bit-lines will become (VDD - Vt), within a very short time. This voltage will rise slightly after some period
LAN Design for Administrative Protocol
Any administrative robustness depends on well organization of the office activity. For well organization, File Management is an important criteria and there need Local Area Network (LAN) connection in the office among
the stuffs. This can be implemented via a central server. Assuming, the head of the office can be connected with 4/5 stuffs by maintaining chain of command and under the supervision of these stuffs all other junior stuffs are distributed based on their section. Hence, file may be shared via LAN in a very swift manner and at the time of assigning work, deadline should be mentioned. Here an important factor is that, comparatively senior stuffs often give their assigned work to the junior stuff and by that practice, equilibrium of the office organization is hampered seriously. So, LAN design may be such that, in a particular section, comparatively junior stuffs and senior stuffs are connected themselves via LAN, but no LAN linkage between senior portion and junior portion for maintaining transparency of the assigned job. By implementing this scheme, well distribution of the assigned work can be managed in a robust way. In the system design, LAN connection in the various sectors of the company has been shown for well management of file sharing and management.
Website Design for Transparent E-Governance
Official web site and its management accelerate transparency and robustness of administration. Web site should be designed from two aspects. Firstly, as all its client, citizens and internet user can access the particular web site for the sake of knowing its activity, official members, recent activities and updates, its formulation and all other emergency and necessary information. For the clients of the e-government company, there should be accounts for the clients as all clients can log into their accounts to know the current status of their files and assigned works info. Before the deadline, company should clear the clients’ files and afterward client can take their files from that particular web site of the company by logging in to their web accounts by downloading their files. So, here a better approach is that, for any file management, client would not have to go to the government office. He/she is just post the file via email to that particular address and after the finishing of the work client can take their file from the particular account. In the developing countries and Asia-Pacific region corruption with clients file management and having bribe by a client to certain stuff for clearing the file is a common phenomena. This process is just like the process of e-mail checking and file downloads from e- mail. This system is shown in fig. Secondly, in the official web site, there should be a page for admin called Admin Page. Only admin can log in here for distributing works to all the stuffs, passing command to the supervisors, checking the current working status of all the stuffs and file management. By maintaining such web site and Admin Page government official job and client dealing might be much more convenient and it must be strong tool for protecting corruption. In the figure, all the stuffs pages, corresponding files, security and all other necessary information about administration has inserted. If admin wants to notify any notice to clients urgently, then he may not mail them, as most people do not check their mail frequently. In that case, if client is notified by SMS by admin, then that SMS should be secured one. In example, If Power Development Board (PDB) wants to notify any client about electric bill to a specific bank account within a certain period or in a short time, then sent SMS should be secured one.
Mobile Wallet Implementation
Because of scarcity of accessibility at different locations, cost, and slow speed, number of people using internet communication is a small percentage of the mobile phone users, especially in the developing countries. Moreover, security in internet-based banking is still a major concern. Most of the financial institutions have their own domain and offer web-based transaction facilities. In this paper, we propose a scheme to utilize the internet based existing banking facility via short message service (SMS) available in mobile phone technology without having the internet connection.
In view of ensuring a high level of security, we introduce two-level security scheme: voice verification and digital watermarking. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is that, it establishes a way for a large number of populations to use e-banking facilities trough the SMS services of their mobile phones without the need of internet connection. In order to overcome the security problem of web-based banking, we incorporated two-level securities consisting of speaker verification and digital watermarking. There is no doubt that such a secured but easy to handle system can attract clients towards e-banking, especially in developing countries. Nowadays internet-based banking is getting popularity because of its several advantages, such as ease of operation and virtual monetary activities, i.e., client’s physical presence at different bank locations are no more required.