By using Beta-decay process, waste treatment process has been
analyzed by me.
My analysis was followed by a transition rate devolves on the count of
directions that the changeover can occur and the saturation of the
fundamental interaction stimulating the conversion i.e. the “coupling”
within the initial and terminal states of matter. In that analysis, in the
excited state, one of the products nuclei is left decomposing by the
emission of one or more gamma photons as the nucleus retroverts to its
ground state. I have found that, as the kinetic energy of the parent
nucleus is zero, the radioactive decay energy must be disbursed among
the kinetic energies of the products. So by using decay energy operation,
mitigation of the power of radiotoxic waste is possible. The mass of
decayed particle is much less than the daughter nucleus Q. For that
reason, if any radioactive waste is done intervention by beta-decay
operation, its toxicity will be mitigated earlier. As the mass of decayed
particle is much less than the daughter nucleus Q, by doing that
operation treatment and conditioning is possible.
In any nuclear waste management plant, by using and varying excited
nuclei produced by reactor through Q-value variation as per equation
above, as energy is varied so it can be processed and conditioned. For
that analysis I have to use pure Vector interaction and Tensor or Axial
Radiative Energy Loss
For weakening the virility of waste, I have used Radiation Power
For the sake of subverting the Radiotoxicity of the radioactive
material as early as possible, I have done Radiative energy loss. My
analysis was that, when a laying out electron motions with atomic
Electrons, collision energy loss goes on and this consequence in
either ionization or excitation of the nuclei. Large energy departures
pass off less oftentimes where a substantial ratio of the energy of
placing electrons is transported to an orbital electron, which is named
a knock-on collision, and the expelled electron is pertained to as a
delta-ray. This process is modeled by collision of ‘free electron’ as
the outermost shell electrons are loosely colligated. Where the
electron loses a negotiable amount of energy, there takes place
‘Collisional Energy Losses’.
The rate of energy release by this mechanics devolves on the electron
energy and the ionization free energy. It was the basic analysis of
Radiative energy loss done by me.
ANISOTROPIC SCATTERING: Compton Imaging
For nuclear waste characterization, I have used Compton imaging
and its effect to alleviate Radiotoxicity and the Klein-Nishina
angular distribution for the incoherent scattering of photons
at different incident energies.
Operations and decommissioning of nuclear waste in various sectors
and its treatment is of a greater concern. To solve this problem, I
have analyzed Compton imaging that has a number of advantages
for characterization of nuclear waste, such as identifying hot spots
in mixed waste in order to reduce the volume of high-level waste
requiring extensive treatment or long-term storage and imaging
large objects. Compton scattering to the nuclear waste due to recoil
electron, energy of waste will be diminished as kinetic energy and
hence it can be told that, for nuclear waste treatment and
conditioning, no scruple that, Compton scattering is a strong and
effective way. B It is the basic analysis of my research of nuclear
From my analysis I have found that, the higher the energy of the
incident photon, the more anisotropic the scattering.
Thermal Utilization Factor of Fusion Reactor
For analyzing effectiveness and absorption of thermal
neutrons by the fuel or their utilization within the
reactor, I have used thermal utilization factor.
My process follows that, because not all thermal neutrons are
absorbed by the fuel, we define thermal utilization as the
probability that, when a thermal neutron is absorbed, it is
absorbed by the “fuel” (F) and not by the “nonfuel” (NF).
Equivalently, it is the ratio of the average thermal neutron
absorption rate in the fuel to the total thermal neutron
absorption rate in the fuel and nonfuel. The value of f can
range from near zero for a very dilute fuel mixture to unity for
a core composed only of fuel.
In my analysis, some of the thermal neutrons absorbed within
the reactor will be absorbed by atoms of non-fuel materials
and for that reason thermal utilization factor will always be
less than the unity.
Reactor Kinetics Model Analysis
For Reactor Kinetics Model analysis, I have considered
critical systems and examined super-critical or sub-critical
The contemplation of time-subordinated processes in
nuclear reactor systems is concerned to as reactor kinetics
or reactor dynamics. For an infinite thermal reactor, time
expected for neutron to retard to thermal energies is
minuscule equated to the time neutron drops as a thermal
neutron before it is finally engulfed. I have also considered
an infinite homogenous reactor whose caloric flow must
be independent of the position.
Here I have analyzed kinetics model analysis with Prompt
neutron lifetime and Reactor Kinetics for Delayed neutrons.
Accelerator Model Analysis: Cyclotron
A cyclotron comprises of two D-shaped realms cognized as dees.
The oscillation degenerates with the magnetic field in the dees
continually contributing the charge back to the gap. As the charge
is in the dee, the force field in the gap is inverted, so the charge is
once again accelerated across the gap. There is a magnetic flux
vertical to the plane of the page in each dee. All time the charge
cuts through the gap it picks up speed. These cause the half-
circles in the dees to step-up in radius and finally the charge issues
from the cyclotron at high speed.
The terminal kinetic energy is fundamentally independent of the
potential drop in the gap, but the kinetic energy is proportional to
the square of the magnetic field, so increasing the magnetic field
is the way to increase the kinetic energy.
PC-based Nuclear Power Plant Simulation
I have done simulation and physical analysis of Transient
characteristics of Boiled Water Reactor and Pressurized Water
Reactor by PC TRAN Nuclear Simulator.
ESBWR is founded on the originally Simplified BWR (SBWR) by
economics of surmount to a higher power level of 4500 MWt (1560
Mwe). The economic consumption of recirculation pumps in
premature BWR patterns or reactor interior pumps for ABWR is
completely eradicated. Core flux is by natural circulation. The
Electric Economic Simplified BWR (ESBWR) depends on the
manipulation of natural circulation and passive characteristics to
enhance the plant functioning and simplify the design. Advanced
Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) uses gas turbine that substitute
diesel generator for exigency power, and in containment refueling
water storage pit (RWSP) for post- LOCA recirculation. Its output is
near 1500 MW electric and evolutionary with 4 coolant loops and 4
trains of ECCS direct vessel injecting.
Bremsstrahlung Emission Process
When the ratio of the average distance between particles is small, charged
particles more or less continuously are dominated by one another’s
electrostatic influence, and their kinetic energies are small compared to
the interaction potential energies. Such plasmas are termed strongly
coupled. A typical particle is electrostatically influenced by all of the other
particles within its Debye sphere, but this interaction very rarely causes
any sudden change in its motion. Such plasmas are termed weakly
coupled. In isotropic weakly coupled plasmas, the electron-ion
Bremsstrahlung process is described by the Debye-Huckel potential
Bremsstrahlung from cerrobend diminutions with changing magnitude
radius because the amount of cerrobend decussate beam is decreased.
These components were distinguished using measurements in water with
variable collimation by 12-cm thick Lucite or by cerrobend barricades for
clinical electron beams. The classical Debye-Huckel model depicts the
properties of low density plasma and represents to pair correlation
estimation. It has been known that the plasmas depicted by the Debye
Huckel model are ideal plasmas subsequently the average fundamental
interaction energy between charged particles are smaller than the
intermediate kinetic energy of a particle. The cognitive operations of
assimilation of laser free energy are rudimentary to the study of optical
maser heated atomic plasmas and have received significant care in
experiments. Results and the simulations of Bremsstrahlung expelling by
fast electrons using numerical cross sections is analyzed by me.
Monte Carlo simulation of electron-photon showers has become the
fundamental tool for the dosimetry of high energy electron beams, for the
delineation of analytical x-ray sources, and, in general, for studies of high-
energy radiation transport, used for these studies. By knowing the energy
or velocity dependence many of the characteristic features of plasmas can
be empathized. Boltzmann distribution is the general equilibrium velocity
distribution function of a collision less plasma. This Maxwellian plasma
entails that it no longer restrains free energy and, hence, in the plasmas,
there are no energy exchange processes between the particles. It is then
decipherable that the speeds of the subatomic particle are presumed to be
dispersed around the mean velocity. In the head and in the tissue
Bremsstrahlung is produced. The Bremsstrahlung is ignored by most
electron beam. For high energies and for small fields this becomes
increasingly important. With beam radius Bremsstrahlung from the head
prevails and increases. Due to electron-ion Coulomb collisions that are a
binary elastic collision between two charged particles interacting through
their own Electric Field in plasmas the Bremsstrahlung radiation has
Simulation and Analysis of Reactor Kinetics Model
For controlling reactivity, Gen-4 reactors are robust enough. Reactivity control
and its safety are treated by assimilation of neutrons in the nuclear reactor. In
these reactors different mechanisms are used for controlling the mechanism
of reactor core’s activity. When the water flow through the core is increased,
because of neutron moderation, reactivity is also increased. In Gen-4 nuclear
reactors heavy particle scattering may be done because of smoothing of the
reactor process. Heavy Particle scattering from an Electron and by this
mechanism reactivity and atom speed can be controlled. For PARR-1 Nuclear
Reactor Computer-Aided Testing and simulation has evolved. In the design of
thermal reactor Resonance Escape Probability is one of the important factors.
In a thermal reactor, most of the neutrons are immersed after they have
retarded to thermal energies. In most reactor designs, various restraints ensue
in this heat departure the reactor chamber at a comparatively low
temperature, so that trivial or none of it can be retrieved as wattage. Thermal
reactors are typical to diverse escape probability. All of the fission neutrons
must eventually be absorbed somewhere in the reactor and there having no
efflux of neutrons from an infinite nucleus. A system’s energy is lost to its
surroundings is defined as Confinement times. In a plasma device, whether
enough fusion will occur to sustain a reaction is determined by confinement
times. For an infinite thermal reactor time required for neutron to slow down
to thermal energies is small compared to the time neutron spends as a
thermal neutron before it is finally absorbed.
At BUET Physics Lab, I have analyzed the X-ray diffraction form to
obtain data such as crystal body structure, sampling orientation,
subatomic particle size and lattice parametric quantity. I have only
essayed lattice parametric quantity that is obtained from the
In a distinctive apparatus, a collimated irradiation of X-rays is
incident on the sample. The strength of the diffracted X-rays is
determined as a function of the diffraction angle. The edge and
contour of the blobs are cognate the perfection of the
crystallization. The saturations of the blots render information
nearly about the atomic basis. The deuce canonical subroutines
postulate either a single crystal or a powder. On individual crystals,
a lot of information concerning the construction can be incurred.
Then again, single crystallizations might not be promptly available
and orientation of the crystal is not straightforward.
It has determined from my experiment that, motions of
wavelength equating the space lattice spatial arrangement are
Magnetostriction of Nanomaterial Alloys
At BUET physics lab, i have worked with magnetostriction of
ferromagnetic alloy (nickel alloy). here i have retained alloy on
magnetic field and changes its field to observe the alteration of its
resistance and voltage to analyze its characteristic curve. For voltage
measurement, i have used KEITHLEY MODEL 2182A.
Magnetostriction is a property of ferromagnetic materials and alloys
that causes them to alter their shape or dimensions during the process
of magnetization. The magnetic variation of material's magnetization
on account of the applied magnetic field changes the magnetostrictive
strain until reaching its saturation value. In summation to thermal
noise, the motility of circuit leads in magnetic fields also generates
unauthentic voltages. Even the earth’s comparatively frail magnetic
field can generate nanovolt noise levels in dropping conducts.
According to my assay and Basic physics, the amount of voltage a
magnetic field induces in a circumference is relative to the region the
circuit conducts confine. Hence, leads must be come off approximate
or be screened to derogate induced magnetic voltages.
CONTROLLING OF RADIATION DOSIMETRY PARAMETERS
For Shielded primary photon dose rate, primary photon dose rate is
attenuated exponentially, and the dose rate from primary photons, where
for the photons in the shield material. For shielded dose rate accounting
for buildup the added effect of the buildup is taken into account by
incorporating a point isotropic source dose buildup factor, The order of
magnitude of the buildup factor hinges upon the origin and screen
geometry, the outdistance from the shield control surface to the dose
degree, photon energy, the shield corporeal and heaviness. An intimately
concerned deterministic quantity, used only in association with
circuitously ionizing (uncharged) radioactivity, is the Kerma, an acronym
for ’Kinetic Energy of Radiation Absorbed per Unit Mass’. The absorbed
dose is, in principle, a mensurable quantity; but in many contexts it is
unmanageable to compute the immersed dose from radiation effluence
and material properties. The calculation of the kerma (rate) is closely
related to the reaction (rate) density. In a neutron dissipate, the
scattering nucleus recoils through the medium producing ionization and
innervations of the ambient atoms. The primary mechanism for
transferring the neutrons kinetic energy to the medium is from neutron
scattering interactions, when fast neutrons pass through a medium. The
average neutron energy loss (and hence average energy of the recoil
nucleus) for isotropic elastic scattering in the center-of-mass system of a
neutron with initial energy E.
Electromagnetic Shielding Analysis
In my analysis, the source and shielding are identified and the task
is to influence the resultant dose.
The task done by me is to regulate the existence of the shielding
required to accomplish the destination. At commencement it must be
said that screening contrives and shielding analysis are
complementary activities. In convening, the source is identified and a
target dose goal is specified. Whether one is engaged in a hand
computation or in a most elaborate Monte Carlo model, one is
confronted with the chores of (1) qualifying the source, (2)
characterizing the nature and rarefying dimensions of the shielding
materials, (3) valuating at a target location the radioactivity strength
and possibly its angular and energy dispersions, and (4) commuting
the saturation to a dose or reaction substantive in terms of
actinotherapy cores. Monte Carlo codes are amenable to these more
complex shielding problems and have become more and more
popular as high-speed ciphering has become uncommitted to so
I have used Monte Carlo model for that analysis. I have Worked with
buildup factors computed using the PALLAS code and Phantom-
I have done poisoning analysis of Xenon and Samarium.
My process was that, In a reactor core the fission products that accumulate
are of concern for two explanations. My first analysis is that, they play long-
term ignite origins through their disintegrations and second analysis is, they
act as epenthetic neutron absorbent or toxicants that, over time, decrease
the thermal utilization factor and, thus, bring in electronegative reactivity
into a core. A very small nuclear denseness of Xenon nuclide can have a right
smart reactivity consequence. Of all isotopes it has the largest thermal
neutron absorption cross section. Xe (135) transients shutdowns from
equilibrium at constant flux densities. Here I have analyzed several factors.
First, Xe (135) transient for the buildup to equilibrium. Second,
Xe(135)Equilibrium flux density before shutdown. Third, The buildup of Sm
(149) to equilibrium and finally Sm (135) transient for the buildup to
equilibrium during a start.
My analysis and decision is that, for Counterbalancing Xenon Poisoning, a
reactor operating at a constant flux density, the equilibrium concentrations
of Iodine and Xenon are found from decay per buildup equations by setting
the time derivative to zero.
For reactivity control, my objective was to operate neutron
population; introduce material that absorbs neutrons.
The system has Short Term Changes of Fuel temperature, Moderate
and/or coolant temperature and Fuel motion. Each of these is often
quantified in terms of a reactivity coefficient. From my analysis, as a
result of these thermal motions even of beam of monoenergetic
neutrons appear to have a continuous spread of energies. Therefore
the resonance peak widens with temperature.
Moreover, I have used Nuclear Doppler Effect for analyzing
temperature effects on reactivity. According to Nuclear Doppler
Effect, Absorption cross sections vary with temperature and Nuclei
are in atoms which are continual motion due to their thermal energy.
Characteristic Analysis of Gen-4 Nuclear Reactors
Reactivity Control, Heavy Particle scattering from an Electron,
Computer-Aided Testing and Resonance Escape Probability analyses
have been analyzed by me for the analysis of reactivity control and
characteristic analysis of nuclear reactors.
By immersion of neutrons in the reactor fuel, secure reactivity
command is fundamentally acted. For ascertaining reactivity, Gen-4
reactors are robust enough. In these reactors different mechanics are
exploited for operating the mechanics of reactor core’s process. By
insuring circulation rate of flow through the jet pumps short term
reactivity commutes are performed. When the water flux through the
core is changed magnitude, because of neutron temperance,
reactivity is as well increased. In that analysis, I have used Data
processor (PC) accomplishes reactivity reckonings from the static
positive reactor period info for the control rod and accomplishes
online acquisition of distinct signals exploitation of the well-known in
Moreover, various transient analysis, conditions and simulation
based analysis have been done for conducting that research.
Heavy Particle Scattering from an Electron
For reactivity control and transient analysis of reactor core simulation, I
have analyzed the process of heavy particle scattering from an electron.
My algorithm is that, an electron scatters heavy electrons. Since
smoothening of the reactor operation, in Gen-4 reactors, heavy particle
dispersion is done. As alpha is heavy charged particles, pass through
matter and they interact through the Columbic force, predominately on
the electrons of the medium as of they occupy most of the matter’s bulk.
Towards heavy charged molecules with kinetic energy (MeV range), the
more minuscule separation energy of an electron to the nucleus is trifling.
Thus, a “free” electron at rest is that, with which an incident alpha particle
interacts. This is energy sufficient to free most electrons from their atoms
and create an ion-electron pair.
Virtually collisions transfer less energy from the alpha particle, and,
consequently, tenners of grands of ionization and innervation
fundamental interaction are requisite for an alpha with respective MeV of
kinetic energy to retard and become part of the ambient medium.
Resonance Escape Probability
Resonance Escape Probability is one of the crucial factors out the
contrivance of nuclear reactor is analyzed by me for the transient
analysis of reactor core.
Thermal reactors are distinctive to diverse escape probability. There
can be ordinal outflow of neutrons from an infinite core; all of the
fission neutrons must eventually be absorbed somewhere in the
reactor. However, some neutrons might be absorbed as retarding by
nuclei having absorption resonances at energies over the thermal
region. Most of the neutrons are assimilated in a nuclear reactor
subsequently decompressing to thermal energies.
For the absorption cross section as a mathematical function of free
energy and the formulations for the retarding compactness to deduce
an equation towards the probability for a neutron to break away being
engulfed in the resonance realm as it decelerates to thermal zips,
Breit-Wigner single level resonance expression has been exploited by
me. The ensuing expression for the resonance escape probability
contours one depot in the four constituent normal for the transfinite
intermediate propagation factor.
Fusion Energy Gain Factor Model
I have used Fusion energy gain factor for the analysis of heating unit volume
of plasma in steady state.
My analysis follows that, as it is the ratio of fusion power density to the
externally supplied power, Plasma must be maintained at a high temperature
in a fusion power reactor in order that nuclear fusion can occur. Various
constraints ensue in this heat imparting the reactor chamber at a relatively
low temperature in virtually reactor excogitations, so that minuscule or none
of it can be recuperated as wattage. In these reactors, wattage is brought
forth from the fraction of the fusion power comprised in neutrons. In these
reactors, wattage is brought forth from the fraction of the fusion power
comprised in neutrons. The neutrons are not moderated by the obtuse
plasma in inertial confinement fusion or the magnetic fields in magnetic
confinement fusion but are absorbed in an encompassing "blanket".
Imputable to versatile exothermic and endothermic reactions, the blanket
may have a power gain factor a few per centum higher or lower than 100%,
but that will be neglected in our scheme. A fraction of the electrical power is
re-circulated to run the reactor arrangements. The one conduct of energy
expiration that is autonomous of the confinement intrigue and practically
inconceivable to obviate is Bremsstrahlung actinotherapy.
Alike the fusion power density, the Bremsstrahlung power density devolves
on the square of the plasma compactness, but it does not alter as apace with
Energy Confinement Times
I have analyzed Confinement times for measuring and analyzing
the rate of liberating energy to its environment. It is the energy
substance fractioned by the order of energy loss.
My analysis follows that, the one conduct of energy expiration
that is autonomous of the confinement intrigue and practically
inconceivable to obviate is Bremsstrahlung actinotherapy. Alike
the fusion power density, the Bremsstrahlung power density
devolves on the square of the plasma compactness, but it does
not alter as apace with temperature. In which 0.5 of a system’s
energy are lost to its surroundings is defined as Confinement
times. In a plasma device, whether enough fusion will occur to
sustain a reaction is determined by confinement times. A simple
expression for the optimal confinement for the optimal
confinement time is given.
In a plasma ignition, the fusion power density that goes into
heating the plasma must exceed the power density lost to the
environment and it has been formulated at my simulation. The
heating power is replaced by the kinetic energy of all charged
fusion products for the D-T reactions.
I have analyzed Quantum mechanical analysis of electronic and
nuclear dynamics of molecule and tunneling effect.
My analysis and research was, the proton and neutron spatial
distributions are exhaustively coalesced overture the stability line,
and radius of nuclear is proportional to molecular diameter. The
nimiety neutrons contour a stratum on the surface of such and in
light neutron rich nuclei near the drip-line, protons and neutrons are
dissociated. Circumvents the nucleus, in cloggier nuclei near the
neutron drip line, a rarity but compact layer of neutrons.
Here for analysis, I have used neutron halos, nuclear skins and
Data Security using Digital Watermarking
Digital watermarking is the newfangled idea in digital media. As
the replication and modification of digital media content is done
frequently and without any significant obstruction, secrecy and
authenticity become vulnerable to attacks. In the information
hiding community digital watermarking has achieved immense
popularity due to its righteous stronghold against piracy and non-
Many watermarking algorithm has been developed in recent
years. From the context of the purposes, as they serve, they differ
from each other. Here I have done some basic algorithms of digital
watermarking technique using LSB (Least Significant Bit) and DCT
(Discrete Cosine Transformation).
In the first one, the fragile watermark is embedded into the robust
one which eventually embedded into original information. Second
method propose dynamic embedding with robust watermarking in
transform domain and fragile in spatial domain. The third one
embeds two watermarks simultaneously in DCT domain of the
host image. For that research, I have used Spatial Domain
Analysis, the LSB method, Transform Domain Analysis, DCT
coefficient replacement method and DCT coefficient binary
Security of SMS: Text hiding using Digital Watermarking